Hot summer days aren\u2019t all fun and games. For outdoor workers who are exposed to extreme\u00a0conditions, summer\u2019s heat presents significant hazards such as sunburn, dehydration and heat stroke. The combination of heat and dehydration can pose a particularly serious health threat during summer for Utah concrete and construction workers. Knowing how to work safely outdoors in hot weather is critical when it comes to preventing heat illness.Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke \u2013what\u2019s the difference?Heat illness can occur in various degrees, most notably heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.Heat cramps are muscle pains caused by loss of fluids and electrolytes during sweating. Outdoor workers who experience heat cramps should rest and replace lost fluid by drinking water and\/or sports drinks.Heat exhaustion is a serious heat-related illness that causes dizziness, nausea, extreme thirst, weakness, confusion and elevated body temperature. Outdoor workers with heat exhaustion should be moved to a cooler location, given water to drink, and apply cold compresses to the head, face and neck. If symptoms persist, medical services are necessary.Heat stroke is the most extreme form of heat illness and happens when the body\u2019s temperature regulating systems fails. Signs of heat stroke include:\u2022 Confusion\u2022 Loss of consciousness\u2022 SeizuresHeat stroke is a medical emergency that can be fatal and requires immediate medical attention.How to avoid heat-related illnessesOccupational hazards that can contribute to heat illnesses include high temperature, direct sun exposure, extreme physical exertion, heavy lifting, wearing protective clothing and gear, and low fluid consumption. Protect yourself in hot weather with these tips from OSHA and the American Red Cross for working safely outdoors:\u2022 Stay hydrated – drink small amounts of water frequently, even if you don\u2019t feel thirsty. The average person has 2.6 million sweat glands that activate when the body needs to cool down. While sweating is good for the body, it can also lead to dehydration. The general rule of thumb is 8 ounces of water every 15 to 20 minutes. Prevention is key when it comes to minimizing risk of dehydration!\u2022\u00a0Dress for the weather –\u00a0Loose-fitting, light-colored, breathable clothing (such as cotton) are good choices for outdoor workers in hot weather. Avoid dark colors that absorb the sun\u2019s rays. A wide-brim hat can help shade the head, face and neck. Be aware that protective gear such as respirators or coveralls can increase heat stress\u00a0on the body.\u2022 Adjust work schedules –\u00a0Establish and enforce\u00a0work\/rest schedules\u00a0to control heat exposure and allow workers to recover. Take into account the level of physical exertion and type of protective equipment being used, and schedule heavy tasks earlier in the day when it’s cooler.\u2022 Take short, frequent breaks in a shady or air conditioned location; OSHA advises employers to provide workers with water and regular rest periods in a cool recovery area.\u2022 Check the weather forecast\u00a0– be aware of both the temperature and the heat index so you can dress accordingly\u2022 Protect yourself against the sun.\u00a0Long-term exposure to the sun not only causes skin damage but increases the risk of skin cancer. For outdoor workers, sunscreen with a minimum SPF of 30 and both UVA and UVB protection is recommended. Even on a cloudy day, 30\u00a0to 50\u00a0percent of the sun\u2019s rays reach the skin, so sunscreen should be liberally applied every two hours, or more if perspiring.\u2022 Use a buddy system when working in excessive heat; learn to recognize signs of heat illness, and act immediately if you recognize signs in yourself or a co-worker.\u2022 Get trained in First Aid to learn how to treat heat-related emergencies and what to do in an emergencyUtah heat can be especially harmful for those who work outdoors in direct sunlight and high temperatures. Concrete workers and employers\u00a0should take steps to avoid potential heat hazards and stay safe when working outdoors in hot weather. Taking the above precautions can help outdoor workers beat the heat and work safely outdoors. Get out of the midday heat – visit your local Intermountain Concrete Specialties store.